The 30-year-old played no part in the 3-0 defeat to Brazil in the early hours of Wednesday morning due to suspension, as La Roja cruelly missed out on a place at next year's tournament on goal difference.
Vidal, who has previously helped his country to Copa America success in 2015 and 2016, says that he has taken the decision to call it quits with his "soul crushed".
Posting on Twitter, he said: "Many thanks to all for everything. Throughout all these years I gave my life in every match [and] learned [a lot] and taught a country that with a little bit of strength and hard work everything is possible! My soul is destroyed but at the same time proud of these players and technical staff."
Chile boss Juan Antonio Pizzi also stepped aside following this morning's disappointment in Sao Paulo.